Integrated circuit English: integrated circuit, abbreviated as IC; or microcircuit, microchip( microchip), chip / chip (chip) in electronics is a way to miniaturize circuits (mainly semiconductor devices, including passive components, etc.) and is often manufactured on semiconductor wafer surfaces.
After transistors were invented and mass produced, various solid-state semiconductor components such as diodes and transistors were widely used, replacing the functions and roles of vacuum tubes in circuits. By the middle and late 20th century, advances in semiconductor manufacturing made integrated circuits possible. Compared to manually assembling circuits that use individual separate electronic components, integrated circuits can integrate a large number of microtransistors into a small chip, a huge step forward. The modular approach of integrated circuit scale production capacity, reliability and circuit design ensures the rapid adoption of standardized integrated circuits instead of the design of discrete transistors.
Integrated circuits have two main advantages for discrete transistors: cost and performance. The low cost is due to the chip putting all the components through photocaling graphing technology, printing as a unit, rather than making only one transistor at a time. High performance is due to the component's fast switching, which consumes less energy because the components are small and close to each other. In 2006, the chip area ranged from a few square millimeters to 350 mm2, reaching one million transistors per mm2.
The first prototype of an integrated circuit was completed by Jack Kirby in 1958 and consists of a bipolar transistor, three resistors, and a capacitor.
Depending on the number of microelectronic devices integrated on a chip, integrated circuits can be divided into the following categories:
1、Small integrated circuits (SSI full name Small Scale Integration) logic gate 10 or transistors below 100.
2、Medium integrated circuit (MSI full name Medium Scale Integration) logic gate 11 to 100 or transistors 101 to 1k.
3、Large-scale integrated circuits (LSI full name Large Scale Integration) logic doors 101 to 1k or transistors 1,001 to 10k.
4、Ultra-large-scale integrated circuit (VLSI full name Very large scale integration) logic gate 1,001 to 10k or transistors 10,001 to 100k.
5、Very large-scale integrated circuit (ULSI full name Ultra Large Scale Integration) logic gate 10,001 to 1M or transistors 100,001 to 10M.
6、GLSI (full name Giga Scale Integration) logic gate more than 1,000,001 or transistors more than 10,000,001.